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Die Singphoniker & Christoph Hammer „Lieben muß ich, immer lieben...“ - Die Sehnsucht eines Königs OC 314 CD
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FormatAudio CD
Ordering NumberOC 314
Release date01/01/2010
Release date01/01/2001
Players/ContributorsMusicians Composer
  • Ascher, August
  • Brauchle, Josef Xaver
  • Henselt, Adoplphe
  • Huber, Nanette
  • Lachner, Franz
  • Lang, Josephine
  • Lenz, Leopold
  • Loehle, Franz Xaver
  • Mittermayer, Georg
  • Müller, Donat
  • Pocci, Franz von
  • Schinn, Georg
  • Schröfl, Johann Baptist
  • Stuntz, Joseph Hartmann

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      Description hide

      Die Singphoniker
      Christoph Hammer

      The Longing of a King Ludwig I of Bavaria (1786 –1868) and Runkelstein Castle

      The decision to create a temporary exhibition about the Bavarian king Ludwig I (1786–1868) at Runkelstein Castle near Bolzano (South Tyrol, Italy) was based on the existence of a guest book from the years 1833 to 1862 which was long thought to be lost. The first entry in this book is the king’s visit on June 3, 1833. This guest book with a total of 2000 entries is one of the most important documents of the castle’s history during the 19th century. In addition, it is proof of the intellectual exchange between North and South during the age of Romanticism. What moved King Ludwig I of Bavaria to visit the massive castle, located high up on a porphyry rock and decorated with the world’s greatest remaining medieval cycle of profane frescoes (wall paintings)? The answer is found in one of the king’s diary entries: “…when I returned from Runkelstein where I went to see the wall paintings. Görres was of the opinion, so I was told, that they depicted the Song of the Nibelung; the names of Tristan etc. prove the contrary…” Thus, it should be noted that Ludwig I’s hurried visit was due to a misunderstanding, because he expected to see the Ring of the Nibelung which, however, turned out to be the Tristan cycle. Nevertheless, this visit in 1833, followed by a second one in 1841, indicated the end of the long sleep of Runkelstein Castle, built in 1237 and equipped with wall paintings during the 14th century. The romanticists’ enthusiasm for castles, especially for Runkelstein, drew its motivation from a new reception of previous centuries. In the search for a new “German” identity, the Middle Ages were regarded as the Occident’s golden age, as the cradle of Europe’s art and culture.

      Despite the fact that for King Ludwig I of Bavaria, Tyrol between 1804 and 1867 was only a gateway to his destinations in Venice, Florence and Rome; the ensuing wave of visitors during the 19th century filled the castle with new life and because of its newly acquired fame eventually led to its restoration, executed by Friedrich von Schmidt between 1884–1888 commissioned by the Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria. He donated Runkelstein Castle to the city of Bolzano in 1893, who still owns the castle up to our days.

      Although there is evidence that Ludwig I’s visits to Runkelstein were brief, the shortness of time certainly did not diminish the intensity of his experience. In fact, the king even decided to go to Runkelstein on foot during his second visit on May 24, 1841. In the following years, many artists studied and copied the enchanting pictures and unique witness of the great medieval culture on our continent, as the draft for a new bedroom on Neuschwanstein Castle for King Ludwig II of Bavaria done in 1880 by Georg Dehn proves in its use of many fresco themes from Runkelstein.

      The “traces” left by Ludwig I of Bavaria are not only found in the memories of him as a brave opponent of Napoleon Bonaparte and sympathiser with the Tyrolean and the Greek freedom fighters, as a supporter and patron of the arts, as a builder who influenced the cityshape of Munich and turned it into a European centre of arts and science, but also in his reputation as a fervent admirer of beautiful women. Furthermore, these traces lead to Ludwig I as a custodian of historical documents, as Prof. Dr. Hubert Glaser explains in his article for the book accompanying the exhibition.

      Even though the world view on King Ludwig I of Bavaria was revised in the course of time, his statement of “What is built on consciousness will stand firm…” is also the key to a secure future of today’s generation.

      We would like to express our deepest gratitude for the success in creating this CD within the framework of the temporary special exhibition about Ludwig I of Bavaria at Runkelstein Castle to the faithful sponsors of the projects at Runkelstein Castle, the “Bayrischer Rundfunk” and the Music Production Dieter Oehms Ltd. for the production of the CD. We especially wish to thank the artists, the ensemble “Die Singphoniker” and Christoph Hammer, furthermore Helmut Balk and Margret Madelung, the private donators of the origianl fortepiano by Gregor Deiss (which was probaly built for the Munich residence in 1815), and we would like to express our special gratitude to Dr. Gunter Joppig, director of the collection of musical instruments of the Munich City museum for the co-operative and successful collaboration. And finally, our warmest thanks to Katja Luterotti and Hannelore Schettler for their organisation work.

      Univ.-Doz. Dr. Dr. Helmut Rizzolli Councillor of the municipality of Bolzano for Economy, Tourism and the castles Runkelstein and Maretsch
      André Bechtold Project manager of the castles Runkelstein and Maretsch

      Ludwig I – the musical poet

      In his earliest youth, Ludwig began to put his thoughts and observations into verse, perhaps – as some biographers assume – to compensate for his stammer. His father Max Joseph, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken- Birkenfeld and commander of a French regiment at the time of Ludwig’s birth on 25 August 1786, succeeded Karl Theodor as the Elector of Bavaria in 1799 and took over power in Munich, however not without his advisor from his time as Count Palatine, the Baron of Montgelas. Although the affable Max Joseph was said to be intellectually rather simple, he granted his son a solid education at the universities of Landshut and Göttingen, which he attended from 1803 onwards.Along with national law and history, he made a particular study of modern languages, translated German “plays into French, French comedies into Spanish, and moreover [did] language exercises in Russian, English and Italian. However, the classical languages of antiquity, Latin and Greek, took second place to this industrious and successful study of the modern languages, and he acquired these later on his own initiative and with astonishing perseverance during his time as Crown Prince. He also practised music and drawing, and by no means neglected his military training. (…) And so Ludwig, the Elector’s heir, received a careful, scientific education of an extent and variety which no other Bavarian monarch had yet enjoyed.“ 1 The subsequent repeated journeys to Italy strengthened and deepened his impressions and caused Ludwig, now Crown Prince since Bavaria had in 1806 been elevated by Napoleon to the status of a kingdom, to become an important art collector. While the Crown Prince wrote the three plays “Otto“, „Germany’s Deliverance“ and “Conradin“ from 1808 to 1820 in opposition to the kingdom and politics of his father Max Joseph I – admittedly he never allowed them to be published 2 – King Ludwig I, who succeeded his father in 1825, published the first volume of his poetry after lengthy preparation at the beginning of March 1829 in an edition of 1500 copies. On 8 April 1829, Johann Peter Eckermann (1792–1854) visited Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832), who had just received a letter from Ludwig I in Rome. Eckermann noted: “I only wanted the King’s poems to be here,“ continued Goethe, “so that I could say something about them in my reply. Judging by the few of his works which I have read, the poems will be good. In form and treatment, he owes much to Schiller, and if he can pour the contents of a noble soul into such a magnificent vessel, we may be justified in expecting much excellence.“ 3 In his answer dated 13 April 1829, Goethe expressed himself quite humbly with regard to his patron’s poems: “The gift of poesy is unique inasmuch as it needs the possessor in order to be able to unfold itself. Poetic statements are involuntary avowals in which our innermost selves are revealed and our connections to the outside world are at the same time created.“ 4 Heinrich Heine (1797–1856), on the other hand, who made no secret of his political opposition, poked fun at Ludwig in the following four-line satire:

      “King Ludwig is a great poet, And when he sings, Apollo Falls on his knees and cries and pleads: ’No more! Or I’ll go mad, o!’“ 5 However, even in the twentieth century, literature still honours Ludwig I’s enthusiasm for antiquity: “The following must be honoured as the principal representatives of philhellenism in German poetry: King Ludwig I of Bavaria (1786–1868), the two Swabians Wilhelm Waiblinger in his own ’Songs of the Greeks’ (1823) and Gustav Pfizer, Heimich Stieglitz, and above all the grammar school teacher from Dessau, who died in 1827 aged only thirtythree, Wilhelm Müller.“ 6 In that same year of 1829, the considerable public interest which Ludwig I’s first volume of poetry created caused the Munich court music trader Sebastian Pacher, who took over the music publisher Falter & Son in 1827, to publish poems by His Majesty King Ludwig of Bavaria in musical settings by composers in the King’s and publisher’s circle. Joseph Hartmann Stuntz (1793–1859) was master of the king’s music from 1825–1837. Franz Lachner (1803–1890) was the general director of the king’s music from 1836 to 1867. Both were also renowned composers. Leopold Lenz (1803–1862) trained as a baritone in Berlin, and worked for the king in Munich from his earlier years, initially as a court and theatre singer and from 1841 as the director of the royal opera. In 1846, he was appointed Professor of Singing at the conservatory in Munich; in 1848 he retired from the stage and spent the rest of his life in obscurity as a private singing teacher. From 1818, the tenor Franz Xaver Löhle (1792–1837) appeared in the court opera, led the Münchner Liederkreis (Munich Song Circle) from 1828 to 1834, and after retiring, devoted himself to up-and-coming singers. Georg Mittermayr (1783–?) enjoyed a similarly legendary reputation as a bass and actor. Appointed court singer in 1805, from the following year he was employed at the royal court theatre in Munich. Joseph Xaver Brauchle is described by lexicographers merely as “a musician born in Bavaria, who lived in Vienna in around 1820 and in Munich around 1830, where he apparently also died. His wife had the reputation of an excellent harpist.“ 7 Elise Brauchle née Dressler appeared in Munich in 1828. Georg Schinn (1768–1833) studied composition under Michael Haydn in Salzburg, and on 2 September 1808 „was appointed court musician for the tenor viol in the royal orchestra in Munich“ after auditioning three times on the violin, flute and viola. Moreover, it is remarkable that two female composers took part in the musical homage. Nanette Huber’s Variations pour Pianoforte, opus 1, were published by Falter & Son in Munch in 1822, which leads one to suppose that she was a talented pianist. Josephine Lang (1815–1880) was born in Munich and was considered a child prodigy on the piano. She received lessons in composing from Mendelssohn-Bartholdy and published over 30 lied collections. In 1807, she was appointed court actress in Munich. Donat Müller (1804–?) worked in Augsburg as the musical director of various churches. Without a doubt, the most interesting musical personality was Franz Count of Pocci (1807–1876) who was an equally talented poet, artist, puppeteer and musician. In 1830, Ludwig I appointed the “clown count“ master of ceremonies, and in 1847 as his court music intendant. Robert Schumann made the following remark about two of his piano sonatas: “the Count has a great deal of talent but has studied little“ 9, and in his review of 1838, said the following about the twelve etudes by Adolphe Henselt (1814–1889). “We are now one excellent work the richer and it is seldom that opinions about the value of a publication will be so undivided.“ 10

      1) Hans Reidelbach: King Ludwig I of Bavaria and his artistic creations, depicted in celebration of his one hundredth birthday, Munich 1888, p.17
      2) First publication: Plays by King Ludwig I transcribed from his handwriting and edited by Ursula Huber, published by Johannes Erichson in: “Vorwärts, vorwärts sollst du schauen“, History, Politics and Art under Ludwig I, vol 3, Munich 1986 (= publications on Bavarian history and culture no. 10/86 edited by Claus Grimm)
      3) Ludwig Trost: King Ludwig I of Bavaria in his letters to his son, King Otto of Greece. Bamberg 1891, p. 101
      4) Egon Caesar Conte Corti: Ludwig I of Bavaria, Munich 1937, p. 342
      5) Ibid. p. 341
      6) Friedrich Vogt and Max Koch: History of German Literature from earliest times to the present day. Volume three. Leipzig and Vienna 1920, p. 91
      7) Mendel-Reissmann: Lexicon of Musicians, vol. 2, p. 173
      8) Felix Joseph Lipowsky: Bavarian Music Lexicon, p. 308
      9) Robert Schumann: Collected writings on music and musicians, edited by Dr. Heinrich Simon, volume one, Leipzig 1888, p. 113
      10) op.cit., volume II, p. 145
      Gunther Joppig

      Tracklist hide

      CD 1
      • 1.Leopold Lenz (1803–1862): Liebessehnen 702:39
      • 2.Leopold Lenz: Die Schnell Fliehenden 102:22
      • 3.Leopold Lenz: An die Liebende 701:42
      • 4.Nanette Huber (?): Liebesklage 202:39
      • 5.Adolphe Henselt (1814–1889): Duo01:49
      • 6.Joseph Hartmann Stuntz (1793–1859) : An meine Frau 703:32
      • 7.Leopold Lenz: Des Gärtners Lied 302:25
      • 8.Franz Xaver Loehle (1792–1837): Liebesklage 601:51
      • 9.Georg Mittermayer (1783–?): An die Liebenden 301:23
      • 10.Franz Lachner (1803–1890): Klavierstück Op.109, Nr. 503:49
      • 11.August Ascher (?): Liebessehnen 402:51
      • 12.Joseph Hartmann Stuntz: Wiegenlied 103:14
      • 13.Franz Lachner: Klavierstück Op.109, Nr. 401:37
      • 14.Georg Schinn (1768–1833): Die Nonne in Himmelspforten 702:57
      • 15.Donat Müller (1804–?): Steter Kampf 503:51
      • 16.Georg Schinn: Die Nonne in Himmelspforten 403:24
      • 17.Franz Lachner: Klavierstück Op.109, Nr. 602:38
      • 18.Leopold Lenz: Abschied im Herbst 201:39
      • 19.Josef Xaver Brauchle (?): Erinnerung an Rom 603:41
      • 20.Josephine Lang (1815–1880): Das Asyl 103:46
      • 21.Franz von Pocci (1807–1876): Gondoliera 1, 3, 803:05
      • 22.Josephine Lang (1815–1880): Nachtgesang03:27
      • Hubert Nettinger 1
        Ludwig Thomas 2
        Michael Mantaj 3
        Alfons Brandl 4
        Christian Schmidt 5
        Quartett 6
        Quartett & Klavier 7
        Klavier 8
        • Total:01:00:21